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Agriculture and allied Sectors
Agriculture plays a very prominent role for development of economy of J&K State. Around 70% of the population in the State gets livelihood directly or indirectly from the Agriculture and allied Sectors.


Growth in Agriculture in J&K
Around 70% of the population of the State resides in the rural areas and directly or indirectly depend upon this sector for their livelihood and employability. Despite of its importance for ensuring inclusive growth and providing Food Security, the contribution of Agriculture towards Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) seems constant which is indication of development of the economy, as agricultural land over the years has shrunken due to developments in other sectors like housing colonies, establishment of new universities and colleges, four lanning of National Highway, development of railway tracks conversion of agricultural land under horticultural activities etc which should have given a set back to the agricultural sector.
Potentials

  • Organic Basmati Rice, Rajmash, off-season vegetables, potatoes, aromatic & medicinal plants,
  • Virus free potato seeds for all seasons,
  • Development of commercial floriculture, Production of virus free quality seeds for flowers and vegetables, aromatic & medicinal plants,
  • Mushrooms round the year, honey and honey by-products, fodder intensification, etc,
  • Wide range of flora available to boost bee keeping,
  • Boost to Quality Saffron Production,
  • Jetropha (Biofuel) cultivation on waste lands and rainfed areas of Jammu region under NWDPRA.

Limitations/Drawbacks in Agriculture

  • Hilly Terrain,
  • Small and fragmented land holdings,
  • Fragile Soil in hilly areas susceptible to soil erosion,
  • Limits to mechanized farming and transportation of products,
  • Extreme limits to irrigation of cultivated land,
  • Single Cropping season in temperate / high altitude areas,
  • Inadequate and unorganized marketing infrastructure,
  • Distant markets for export outside the State.

Seed Management and Seed Replacement Rate (SRR)
To sustain continuous growth in productivity, seed management plays a vital role. Looking at the present situation in the state, the figures are not satisfactory. The national average of seed replacement rate has been above 25 percent while the J&K State is pursuing its efforts to consistently achieve the desired level of Seed Replacement Rate (SRR) in case of High Yielding Varieties of major crops. The limitation of availability of breeder and foundation seeds is also a contributory factor. The desirable SRR level 25 percent for self pollinated crops, 35% for cross pollinated crops and 100 percent for hybrids at the national level have now been revised to 50% for cross pollinated crops and 33% for self pollinated crops. The state agriculture universities are pursuing research to evolve short duration high yielding varieties including hybrids, with special emphasis on rainfed areas. There are variations in the seed replacement rates from crop to crop and department is endeavoring to achieve a standard degree of seed replacement rates variety wise to boost the production in the coming years and various initiatives taken are underway.
For enhancing agricultural productivity on sustainable basis, improving Seed Replacement Rate (SRR) is an important component. Department of Agriculture has registered a 33% SRR of rice in Kashmir valley and 26.32% in Jammu Division. SRR in respect of maize was observed at 24% in Kashmir and 32.10% in Jammu Division. SRR in respect of Fodder is anticipated at 32% and 35% during Rabi Season in Kashmir and Jammu respectively.


Cropping pattern and yield of food products.


Details of Area, Production and Yield

S.No

Kind of Crop

Area (000 Ha)

Production (000 Qtls )

Yield (Qt/ha )

2013-14

2014-15

2013-14

2014-15

2013-14

2014-15

1

Rice

271.49

265.88

5567.38

4548

20.51

17.11

2

Maize

298.68

308.62

5305.3

2735

17.76

8.86

3

Wheat

292.07

290.99

6018.81

5819.5

20.61

20.00

4

Barley

12.52

12.63

71.02

71.6

5.67

5.67

5

Pulses

25.79

26.57

138.38

84.1

5.37

3.17

6

Oilseeds

65.73

65.95

588.36

583.8

8.95

8.85

 

Total

966.28

970.64

17689.25

13842

18.22

14.26

Necessity to increase agriculture production and productivity
As per the population census of 2011, Jammu and Kashmir has a total population of is 1.254 crore with decadal growth rate of 23.71% at the State level (rural 19.77% & urban 35.66%). To meet the ever increasing demand for food grains Agriculture Department, Agriculture Universities and other stake holders need to make concerted efforts to accept the challenge by adopting various interventions/new techniques of productions and addressing the problems of rain fed areas etc by way of making huge investments to increase food production to bridge the gaps. An estimation made by the Directorate of Agriculture Jammu, food grain requirement for the State works out to 25 lac MT per annum as against the tentative production of about 20.65 Lac MT during 2013-14.. Therefore the State faces a deficiency of 4.35 Lac MT of food grains which is provided by the CAPD through the rationing system. During the year 2014-15 food production got reduced to 17.42 lac MT due to devastating floods in the State.
Agriculture Production Department implements various developmental projects through the following sectors of development:-

  • Directorates of Agriculture Kashmir/Jammu.
  • Directorates of Command Area Development Kashmir/Jammu.
  • Directorate of sericulture J&K.
  • State Agricultural Universities Kashmir/Jammu.
  • Agro Industries Development Corporation.
  • Line Departments in convergence with various Centrally Sponsored Schemes (Floriculture, Fisheries, Animal/Sheep, Cooperatives etc.)

An amount of Rs. 276.48 crores comprising of Rs. 27.51 crores as revenue component & Rs. 248.97 Crores as capital component has been earmarked during 2014-15 for implementation of RKVY. Various Projects under Agriculture, Sericulture, CAD and AGROS have an outlay of Rs. 43.84 crores under projectisation part, Rs. 14.64 crores loan component & Rs. 186.54 crores as ACA for Command Area Development and RKVY projects out of the total outlay during 2014-15. RKVY outlay has been made part of the State Annual Plan which represents ACA during the said period.

 

Centrally Sponsored Schemes.
In addition to State Plan Department of Agriculture implements following Centrally Sponsored Schemes:-

  • National Food Security Mission.
  • National Mission on Agricultural Extension & Technology.
  • National Mission on Oil seeds & oil Palm.
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture.
  • Catalytic Development Programme (Sericulture).
  • Command Area Development & Water Management Programmes.
  • Weather based crop insurance scheme.
  • National Bamboo Mission

A word about each.

  • National Food Security Mission

National food Security Mission is under implementation in J&K to increase the disease free Food production of rice , wheat, pulses & course cereals (Maize), to increase the farmers income by making the farm business management more profitable and to generate employability.

An amount of Rs 26.01 crores was approved during 2013-14 out of which Rs.14.17 crores was utilized.

During 2014-15 Action Plan has been approved at an amount of Rs. 26.05 crore. An amount of Rs. 6.95 crore has been received as first installment from the Central Government, against which Rs.18.80 crore has been expended by ending December 2014, which includes Rs. 11.85 crore as unspent balance of last year.

  • RKVY

Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) provides incentives to the farmers which aims at achieving & sustaining inclusive growth during 12th plan period by ensuring holistic development of agriculture & allied sectors, to achieve the goal of reducing the yield gaps in important crops, through focused interventions & good productive practices, to maximize returns to the farmers in Agriculture & allied sectors and brings quantifiable changes in the production & productivity of various components of Agriculture & allied sectors by addressing them in a holistic manner.
Central Assistance is being utilized for the implementation of various normal Programmes through Agriculture , Horticulture, Floriculture, Animal & Sheep Husbandry, Fisheries, Cooperatives Department & State Agricultural Universities. Other components of RKVY are:-

  • National Vegetable Initiative for Urban Clusters
  • Saffron Mission
  • National Mission On Protein Supplements

The financial targets & achievements registered during 2013-14 & 2014-15 are as under:-


 (Rs. In lacs)

Scheme

Approved
allocation
2013-14

Funds received from GOI

Funds utilized ending March 2014

Unspent
balance

Funds
revalidated
and
authorized

RKVY
(Normal)

2704.00

2704.00

2169.32

534.68

534.68

Vegetable
Cluster

700.00

448.00

436.89

11.11

11.11

Saffron
Mission

10000.00

5000.00

4255.07

744.93

744.93

NMPS

1667.00

700.00

682.57

17.43

17.43

Total

15071.00

8852.00

7543.85

1308.15

1308.15

During 2014-15 against an approved outlay of Rs.150.50 crore, an amount of Rs. 75.25 crore was received and expenditure actually incurred arrived at an amount of Rs. 39.39 crore (including unspent amount of 2013-14) ending January 2015.

Major focus was laid on Saffron Mission for which Rs. 10000.00 lacs has been approved as per the project which was estimated to cost Rs 400.11 crore against which on annual plan basis Rs 20.63 Crore has been utilized ending January 2015 and the target period for the finalization of the project is 2017. Funding under RKVY and its components has been released to the implementing agencies and programmes have been launched, but in view of floods and technical difficulties full amount is not expected to be utilized by the end of March, 2015, especially under Saffron Mission.

 

  • National Mission for Oilseed and Oil Palm (NMOOP)

The scheme has various interventions for enhancing production and productivity of oilseeds. An amount of Rs. 151.38 lacs is approved and Rs. 69.00 lac have been received from Government of India under MM-I, against which Rs. 26.52 lacs has been utilized by ending December 2014.

Under Mini Mission-III of NMOOP, an amount of Rs.26.61 lac is approved during 2014-15. Department proposes to achieve the main target of purchasing 1.5 qtls of breeder seeds, production of 151 qtls of foundation seeds, production of 200 qtls of certified seeds and distribution of 600 qtls of certified seeds during 2014-15. The scheme envisages training programme through block demonstrations on 616 hectares of land, 40 integrated pest management demonstrations (IPM), distribution of 37 improved manual farm implements, 37 power operated implements etc during 2014-15.

Mini Mission-III of NMOOP 98 hectares of area is proposed to be expanded for wild apricot and 15 hectares under olive cultivation. MM-III also provides training to farmers/extension workers/officers/input dealers for transfer of technology.

  • National Mission on Agricultural Extension and Technology (NMAET)

The main objective of this scheme is to extend Agricultural education for transfer of technology, introduction of improved seeds, limited and specific use of pesticides & introduction of modern farm business machinery. The scheme envisages implementation of the core components for ensuring easy availability of inputs (i.e seeds, pesticides & machinery) at reasonable prices. Agricultural Extension & Technology have to go hand in hand and that is the genesis of the National Mission on Agricultural Extension & Technology. So, that delivery of appropriate technology & improved Agronomic Practices are enabled.
The CSS" NMAET" has been restructured & is comprising following sub-schemes:-

  • Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization.
  • Sub-Mission on Agricultural Extension.
  • Sub-Mission on Seed & Planting Material.
  • Sub-Mission on Plant Protection.

An amount of Rs . 3663.14 lacs has been approved for the implementation of Sub­Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (Rs. 182.88 lacs), Sub-Mission on Agricultural Extension (Rs. 2612.31 lacs) and Sub-Mission on Seed & Planting Material (Rs. 867.95 lacs) during 2014-15. An amount of Rs. 534.71 Lacs has been received by the Department for the implementation of various programmes in a mission mode manner. An amount of Rs. 601.85 lacs (including Rs. 34 lacs as State

Share) has been released against which an amount of Rs. 452.24 lacs has been utilized ending December, 2014. In addition to above Government of India provided transport subsidy to the tune of Rs. 22.10 lacs which has been fully utilized during 2014-15.

  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture proposes to achieve various objectives to make agriculture more productive, sustainable remunerative and climate resilient by promoting location specific Integrated/ Composite Farming Systems, to conserve natural resources through appropriate soil & moisture conservation measures, to adopt comprehensive soil health management practices based on soil fertility maps, soil test based application of macro & micro nutrients, judicious use of fertilizers etc, to optimize utilization of water resources through efficient water management to expand coverage for achieving 'more crop per drop, to develop capacity of farmers & stakeholders, in conjunction with other on-going Missions.

The CSS" NMSA" after restructuring is to be implemented under the following heads of development:-

  • Rainfed Area Development Programme (RADP).
  • Climate Change & Sustainable Agriculture Monitoring, Modeling & Networking.
  • Soil Health Mission (SHM).
  • On farm Water Management (OFWM).

An amount of Rs. 628.07 lac has been approved for Rainfed Area Development against which an amount of Rs. 250 lacs has been released.

For the Climate Change Intervention two pilot projects for Gurez (Bandipore) and Bhuddal (Rajouri) Blocks have been submitted for an amount of Rs. 10 .00 crore each. These blocks have the high potential for inclusive development, but the yield is low and the areas are in the far flung and remote parts of J&K. after consulting with the Rural Development Department for identification of desired blocks,

An amount of Rs. 689.50 lacs has been approved for the establishment of Soil testing labs. 06 Static labs and 06 Mobile soil Testing labs with 60 portable soil testing kits, strengthening of fertilizer quality control lab and setting up of bio-fertilizer and organic fertilizer testing and quality control labs have been sanctioned, programmes of which have been launched during 2014-15.
For On Farm water Management , an amount of Rs. 284.00 lacs is approved against which Rs. 164.56 lacs has been authorized for utilization during 2014-15, in addition to this a State Share of Rs. 200 lac was provided by the Finance department representing State Share during 2014-15 for which the programmes stand launched on ground for minor irrigation purposes.

Catalytic Development Programme (Sericulture)
Under CDP an amount of Rs 15.00 crore is approved and the department has received an amount of Rs. 14.38 crores as central assistance during 2014-15 and the notable achievements registered under this sector through State and central funding are as under:-

  • During the current year 2014-15 the cocoon production has been achieved upto 773 MT due to the impact of implementation of Centrally Sponsored Scheme on incentive basis.
  • By way of sale of cocoons the income generation to farmers during the current financial year 2014-15 is Rs. 1220.00 lac. During the current year, ending October, the cocoon growers got remunerative prices and the farmers in some markets fetched record high price of Rs. 900 to Rs. 1000 per kg of dry cocoons compared to average price of Rs. 397 last year showing an increase of 250%.
  • The State Government has enhanced the support price for seed cocoons produced by the farmers for production of quality silkworm seed in the department to Rs. 200/Kg from Rs. 150/Kg.
  • The support price of commercial cocoons has been increased by the Government from Rs. 210/Kg to Rs. 300/Kg (dry) for the sericulture farmers of the State during the current year.
  • J&K State is a mono crop region and sericulture activity is a subsidiary occupations. The Department is striving hard to introduce multiple cropping in the State for sustainable sericulture in the State. Results are quite encouraging and during the current year the Department introduced multiple cropping throughout the State and the third cocoon crop (autumn crop) is under progress.
  • The Department has envisaged an ambitious vision programme in the form of a document for the next twenty years to cover about five lac farmers in the activity of sericulture to take the cocoon production to newer heights of 25000MT.

Command Area Development & Water Management Programmes
As per the estimates of the F.C. Revenue area irrigated and un irrigated during kharief 2013, is reported at 7.25 lac hectares. An area of 3.07 lac hectares is irrigated and 4.18 lac hectares is un irrigated. To bring more area under the irrigation category Command Area development is implementing various programmes through AIBP funding shared between the Centre and the State on 50:50 basis.

An amount or Rs. 31.00 crore is approved as the ACA for Command Area Development and Water management projects in the State. The scheme being shared between centre and the State on 50:50 pattern of cost basis. As against a requirement of equivalent amount Department has an outlay of Rs. 20.29 crores annually, leaving a gap of Rs. 10.71 crores as the State Share and this short fall in the State share under the sector limits access to the entire Additional Central Assistance (ACA), during 2014-15. There are two projects under implementation in the Command Area Jammu and fifteen projects in Command Area Kashmir. The Department provides field channels, soil conservation water management activities for the irrigation purposes as otherwise the potential created by the irrigation department is not utilized optimally.

Weather based crop insurance scheme.
State Government has launched the Weather based Crop Insurance Scheme, during the current year, on pilot basis covering Saffron in Kashmir Valley and Basmati Rice in Jammu Division. Weather at required places were set up by the SKUAST and insurance companies. Metrology Department has to come forward in this direction for guidance of the Department so that the farmers are benefitted.

National Bamboo Mission
As a part of National Mission on Integrated development of horticulture , Agriculture Production Department formulated an action plan for an amount of Rs. 203.31 lac during 2014-15. An amount of Rs. 77.41 lac has been received from Government of India for the implementation of Bamboo Mission programmes in an integrated form involving Forest Department and Agriculture Department including SKUAST J/K. one hi-tech nursery involving Rs. 40 lac is expected to come up in SKUAST-K and other small nurseries in the Forest and Agriculture Department for the promotion of bamboo cultivation in the potential areas which will diversify the production lines of the farmers for increasing their farm incomes.

Major Challenges and Priorities
The main challenges are shrinking land base, depletion of water resources, adverse impact of climate change, shortage of Farm Labour as dignity of labour vanishing, Increasing costs of inputs, uncertainties of weather, soil erosion, and volatility in national and international markets.

Key Drivers of Growth

  • Availability and dissemination of result oriented technologies which depend on quality of research and extent of skill development.
  • Adequate investment on Agriculture and strengthen of infrastructure, improve functioning of markets besides optimum utilization of scare economic resources.
  • Governance in terms of institutions that make better delivery of services like credit, quality inputs, like seeds, fertilizers, farm machinery etc. For addressing food security and sustainability extension of green revolution to low productivity areas, besides focusing on water stress zones is emphasized during 12th Five Year Plan period.
  • Modernization and computerization of land in a time bound manner.
  • Leveraging the refined private investment as well as Policies for making markets more efficient and competitive.
  • Agriculture Research and Education: For providing dent to the poverty and reducing hunger, the Agriculture Research play a crucial role and shall be addressed in a big way.
  • Providing of quality seed: The ratio of quality seed to total seed use by the farmers is still much below the norm and there is considerable scope to raise crop productivity by raising this ratio during 12th Five Year Plan period.
  • The importance of PPP in Agriculture in extension will also explored besides introducing small size of machine for Agriculture operation in view of small size of holding in the State.
   
     
     
     
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Convenor J&K SLBC
The Jammu & Kashmir Bank Ltd.
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